Sunday, 10 November 2013

Is Candy a Foe for our teeth??

Several Studies have shown a relation between dental caries & consumption of carbohydrates.(Sugar/Sugar candies)

Does this mean:-
If you have a Sweet Tooth you will also have a tooth decay?? "


Dental Caries- defined as the gradual decay of the teeth. A dental cavity is a hole in tooth caused by dental caries. 

Main factors responsible for dental caries:-  
  • Bacteria        
  • Carbhohydrate containing foods.
  • Length of time of teeth exposure to sugars/Carbs
All these factors must occur simultaneously for dental caries to convert into a Dental cavity.
There is a strong relationship between length of time for which sugar are present in mouth & development of caries.
 
-Sticky foods like carmel candies, potato chips,raisins etc which adhere to tooth for longer periods can lead to such tooth decay.
-Sipping sweetened/carbonated beverages continually can promote tooth decay...eg. Nursing bottle syndrome. 
Bacteria normally present in mouth interact with dietary carbs to produce acids. 
Tooth decay is caused by acid-producing bacteria in mouth that feast on carbohydrates, be it sugar from candy or starch from wholesome foods such as biscuits or bread. 
The Acids not the sugars or carbohydrates cause decay.
Lets Discuss Process of Cavity formation - Tooth Decay...
Oral bacteria feed on carbohydrates & produce acid as a byproduct of simple fermentation.
Such bacteria live on the teeth as biofilm called Plaque.
The acid produced degrades tooth enamel.

A human tooth is in a constant state of mineralization & demineralization.
Saliva helps neutralize this acid.
But if saliva secretion is less.The region gets too acidic, then demineralization takes over mineralization.Tooth decay sets in.
 

As all carbs are responsible for acid formation in mouth. Not only SUCROSE or SUGAR CANDIES but all types of sugars-fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, lactose can promote cavity formation.
Remedies:-
Reduce the time of dental contact with carbohydrates.
Certain foods may help in counteracting the effects of acids produced by oral bacteria .
e.g. Aged cheese, fibrous fruits, citrus fruits, celery stimulates production of saliva in generous amounts.
Saliva clears the mouth of food & counteracts bacterial acid production.

As saliva production increases during the meals.Thus, sugars/carbs consumed in between meals is considered less likely to cause tooth decay. 

Sipping plain water post carbohydrate consumption to clear the oral cavity of the food.
Or using mouth wash to rinse off mouth post food consumption is best way to combat caries.



 
I may conclude, candies may cause tooth decay but they can't be termed as sole culprits.

Its our negligence towards Good Oral Hygiene thats bigger factor responsible for Tooth Decay.
Maintain
Good Oral Hygiene!! Keep smiling!!


Tuesday, 29 October 2013

Pamper your companion!!

Nice short story:-
There was a man with four wives. He loved his fourth wife the most and took a great care of her and gave her the best.
He also loved his third wife and always wanted to show her off to his friends. However, he was always had a fear that she might runaway with some other man.
He loved his second wife too. Whenever he faced some problems, he always turned to his second wife and she would always help him out.

He did not love his first wife though she loved him deeply, was very loyal to him and took great care of him. One day the man fell very ill and knew that he is going to die soon.

He told himself, "I have four wives with me. I will take one of them along with me when I die to keep company in my death."

Thus, he asked the fourth wife to die along with him and keep company. "No way!" she replied and walked away without another word.

He asked his third wife. She said "Life is so good over here. I'm going to remarry when you die".

He then asked his second wife. She said "I'm Sorry. I can't help you this time around. At the most I can only accompany you till your grave."

By now his heart sank and he turned cold.

Then a voice called out: "I'll live with you. I'll follow you no matter where you go."

The man looked up and there was his first wife. She was so skinny, almost like she suffered from malnutrition. Greatly grieved, the man said, "I should have taken much better care of you while I could have!"

Actually, we all have four wives in our lives.

a. The fourth wife is our body. No matter how much time and effort we lavish in making it look good, it'll leave us when we die.

b. The third wife is our possession, status and wealth. When we die, they go to others.

c. The second wife is our family and friends. No matter how close they had been there for us when we're alive, the furthest they can stay by us is up to the grave.

d. The first wife is our soul, neglected in our pursuit of material wealth and pleasure. It is actually the only thing that follows us wherever we go.

Monday, 7 October 2013

Carpenter's toolbox.



Once upon a time two brothers who lived on adjoining farms fell into conflict. It was the first serious rift in 4 decades. A small misunderstanding grew into a major difference, and finally exploded into an exchange of bitter words followed by months of silence.
One morning there was a knock on the older brother’s door. He opened it to find a man with a carpenter's toolbox. "I'm looking for a few days work, perhaps you would have a few small jobs here and there. Could I help you?" he asked.
"Yes," said the older brother. "I do have a job for you. Look across the creek at that farm. That's my neighbor, in fact, once my younger brother. Few months back there was a meadow between us but he took his bulldozer to the river levee and now there is a creek between us. He has done this to spite me, but I want to teach him a better lesson. Do you see that pile of logs by the tree? I want you to build me a fence so high that I don’t to see his place anymore.”
"I think I understand the situation. I'll do a job that will make you happy" the carpenter said and walked off to start his work. The carpenter worked hard all that day measuring, sawing, nailing.
At sunset when the farmer returned, the carpenter had just finished his job. The farmer's eyes opened wide in shock and his jaw dropped.
There was a bridge stretching from one side of the creek to the other instead of the fence he had asked for! What a magnificent piece of art that was and on it he watched his brother come towards him with outstretched arms. The two brothers stood at each end of the bridge, and then they met in the middle, taking each other's hand.
They turned to see the carpenter hoist his toolbox on his shoulder. "No, wait! Stay a few days. We have many projects for you" said they in unison.
"I'd love to stay on, but I have many more bridges to build" the carpenter said leaving them smiling behind their tears.
                  Building bridges is better than burning them!

Tuesday, 17 September 2013

आराध्य


नयनो में  दीप्त होते अटल अमर दो तारे 
जो कहते हम पा सकते लक्ष्य हमारे 
अधरों पर छाती है जब निर्मल निश्छल मुस्कान 
वो मिटा देती है जीवन श्रम की कातरता व थकान 
विचारों में है आथाह सगर सी गंभीरता 
जो हरती मेरे चंचल चपल मन की अधीरता
वाणी से छलकता वो हृदय के भीतर का विश्वास 
जो दूर करता संदेह व जीवन के उच्छ्वास 
दर्श में सिमट आती वसुधा की खुशियाँ सारी 
जो अनुभूति कराती है वात्सल्यपूर्ण  है सृष्टि हमारी

व्यक्तिव में है एक  अद्भुत (अदभुत ) चुम्बकीय  आकर्षण 
जो हृदय में हमारे करता उनके प्रति श्रद्धा उत्पन्न 
यदि मुझसे कोई पूछे कि कैसी होगी 
तुम्हारे आराध्य की सजीव मूरत 
तो पता है मुझे, प्रकट होगी नयन पटल पे 
उनकी ही अटल, अमर नयनाभिराम मूरत!!

Thursday, 8 August 2013

ये वक़्त नहीं,सोने का!!



क्या भारत "कुछ" लोगों का है??
क्या वक़्त अभी सोने का है??
हम दर्द अगर महसूस करें,
पीड़ा सेना की, समझ सकें...
तो खुद को रोक ना पायेंगे
और बात समझ ही जायेंगे
यह मौत का खेल, यूँ वीरों से,
आतंकी करे...या पाक करे…
यह वीर हमारे अपने थे
भारत माँ के रत्नों में थे 
कुछ नेता कहते-"शांत रहो
और गीत मैत्री के गाते रहो... 
यूँ ही वीरों को लुटाते रहो... 
हम गीत मैत्री के गायेंगे
खुद शांतिदूत बन,
भारत माँ के बेटों की,भेट चढ़ायेंगे"
बहता जो खून रगों में है,
खून नहीं है... पानी है...
सत्ता लोलुप लोगों के लिए,
ये बस हार जीत की कहानी है... 
जीवन का क्या?? लुट जाने दो..
सत्ता ना उन्हें गवानी है... 
अब डोर छीन लें इनसे हम 
अस्मत भारत माँ की बचानी है…
जो जान शहीदों ने दी है
वो भेट नहीं, कुर्बानी है...
अमन की झूठी आस नहीं 
ज्योत सरफरोशी की दिलों में जलानी है...
ये  देश नहीं "कुछ" लोगों का
ये वक़्त नहीं अब सोने का!!


  






Wednesday, 24 July 2013

मुझे काँटों पर प्यार आता है!

मुझे काँटों पे प्यार आता है
ना खिलने की चिंता, 
ना मुरझाने का डर
ना टूटने की चिंता, 
ना बिखरने का डर 
इन्हें अटल रहना आता है 
इसलिए मुझे काँटों पर प्यार आता है!!
ना धूप, ना छाँव का असर 
ना पानी ना हवाओं का असर 
इन्हें हर मौसम भाता है
इसीलिए मुझे काँटों पर प्यार आता है!!
ना कोई रंग ना कोई रूप 
ना ख़ुशी की चाहत ना ग़म से आहत
इन्हें कोई नहीं अपनाता है 
इसीलिए मुझे काँटों पर प्यार आता है
ना श्रद्धा मिलती,ना श्रधांजलि देता 
ना बालों में बाँधा जाता,
ना पैरों से रौंदा जाता 
इन्हें आत्मसम्मान की रक्षा करना खूब आता है 
इसीलिए मुझे काँटों पर प्यार आता है!!





Saturday, 22 June 2013

प्रकृति नहीं मनुष्य कर रहा है मनमानी !!


संवाददाता जोर जोर से चिल्ला रहे,
माँ गंगा को विध्वंसनी बता रहे हैं,
कहते हैं-"प्रकृति ने की है मनमानी"
गाँव, सड़क,शहरों में भर आया है बाड़ का पानी,
नदियों  को सीमित करनेवाले तटबंद टूटे 
ये देखकर प्रशासन के भी पसीने छूटे
बैराजों के दरवाज़े चरमरा उठे 
टेहरी जैसे बाँध भी जल को रोक न सके !
जीवन दुशवार हो रहा,
गंगा का जल आपे से बाहर हो रहा है!

किसी ने कहा:-" पानी क्या,तबाही है तबाही!!
प्रकृति को सुनाई नहीं देती,मासूमों की दुहाई??
नदियों के इस बर्ताव से,मानवता घायल होती है,
सच कहें तो, 
बरसात में नदियाँ पागल हो जाती हैं!!"

ऐसा सुनकर गंगा माँ मुस्कुराई 
और बयान देने जनता की अदालत में चली आयीं 
जब कठघरे में आकर माँ गंगा ने अपनी ज़बान खोली 
तो वो करुणापूर्ण आक्रोश में कुछ यूँ बोलीं :-
"मुझे भी अपना साम्राज्य छिनने का डर सालता है 
और मानव, मानव तो मेरी निर्मल धारा केवल कूड़ा डालता है 
धार्मिक आस्थाओं का कचरा,मुझे झेलना पड़ता है
जिंदा से लेकर,मुर्दों तक के अवशेषों को,अपने संग ठेलना पड़ता हैं,
अरे! जब मनुष्य मेरी अमृतधारा में पोलिथीन बहता है 
जब,मृत पशुओं की दुर्गन्ध से मेरा जीना दुर्भर हो जाता है,
जब,मेरी धरा में आकर मिलता है शहरों के गंदे नालों का पानी 
तब किसी को देखाई नहीं देती मनुष्य की मनमानी??"
"ये जो मेरे भीतर का जल है::इसकी प्रकृति ही अविरल है 
कोई भी अड़चन मुझसे सहन नहीं होती 
फिर भी युगों से मेरी धाराएं; तुम्हारे अत्याचारों का भार है ढोती!!
ऐसे ही थोड़ी आ जाती है बाढ!!
तुम निरंतर डाले जा रहे हो,मुझमें औद्योगिक विकास का कबाड़!!
मानवीय मनमानी जब हदें लांघ जाती हैं 
तभी प्रकृति अपनी सीमाएं-खूँटी पर टांग देती है। 
नदियों का जल जीवनदायी है 
परन्तु मानव प्रवृति ही आततायी है!
इसने निरंतर प्राकृतिक शोषण किया 
और अपने ओछे स्वार्थों का पोषण किया । 
नदियों की धारा को बांधता गया और मीलों  फैले,
मेरे विस्तार को कंकरीट के दम पर काटता गया। 
सच तो ये है,मनुष्य नदियों की ओर बढ़ता आया है 
नदियों की धरा को संकुचित कर इसी ने, शहर बसाया है। 
ध्यान से देखेंगे तो, आप समझ पाएंगे 
नदी शहर में घुसी है या शहर नदी में घुस आया है !!
जिसे बाड़ का नाम दे-दे; मनुष्य हैरान परेशान है 
ये तो नदियों का नेचुरल सफाई अभियान है 
"प्रकृति नहीं मनुष्य ही कर रहा है मनमानी !!"
ये तो, उसीके दुष्कृत्यों का परिणाम है!!

Saturday, 22 December 2012

निष्क्रियता त्यागो!!

Recent cartoon by Sudhir Tailang ji


निष्क्रियता त्यागो!! शासकों जागो !!! 

आज फिर से "मौन-व्रत" टूटा,
कहा-"ऐसा अपराध ना हो दोबारा!!"

हम कोई ठोस कदम नहीं उठायेंगे 
हम कोई कानूनी संशोधन नहीं लायेंगे 
मांगेंगे इन्साफ संसद में-चीख-चीख कर 
पर, ऐसे अपराधो के खिलाफ,आवाजों को दबायेंगे 
और फिर सरकार में बैठ चिल्लायेंगे - ऐसा  अपराध ना हो दोबारा!!
जन चेतना को, जन आक्रोश को 
विद्रोह बताकर, लाठियां बरसाएंगे 
आंसू गैस के गोले चलाएंगे 
जन प्रतिनिधि होते हुए भी 
जनता की भावनाओ को ना समझने का, ढोंग रचाएंगे!!
जब जनता के हाथ पैर टूट जायेंगे,
हम एक बैठक कर उनके नेता से मिलने की झूठी आस जगायेंगे !!
ऐसे अन्दोलन का कोई नेता ना पाकर मन ही मन मुस्कुराएंगे 
और फिर सरकार में बैठ चिल्लायेंगे - ऐसा  अपराध ना हो दोबारा  !!
अबला, कह कहकर नारी को सहमायेंगे 
जगह जगह सिर्फ कैमरे लगायेंगे 
और अपराध हो ने के बाद
अपराधियों को पकड़ने की वीर गाथाये गायेंगे!
कोई पुख्ता कानून ना लायेंगे 
जब अपराधी बेल पर छूट जायेंग,
हम  फिर सरकार में बैठ चिल्लायेंगे - ऐसा  अपराध ना हो दोबारा  !!
कहो तो, पीड़ित का बार बार पुलिस बयान करवाएंगे 
उसके परिवार के,मन में, कानून के लम्बे चक्करो का डर बैठाएंगे! 
न्याय के मंदिर कहे जानेवाले न्यायालो में बैठे
न्यायाधीशों के हाथ बांध-उन्हें बस पूजनीय मूरत बनायेंगे!
कोई फ़ास्ट ट्रैक कोर्ट नहीं बनायेंगे
पीड़ित की वर्षों चप्पलें घिसवायेंगे 
पीड़ित का अगर आक्रोश फूटा 
तो उसी पे,न्यायलय व देव तुल्य न्यायाधीशों की 
अवमानना का केस चलाएंगे !!
और जब अपराधी पीड़ित की विवशता पे मुस्कायेंगे 
हम फिर सरकार में बैठ चिल्लायेंगे - ऐसा अपराध ना हो दोबारा  !!
यूँही चलता रहेगा क्रम,सोच सोच महलों में गर बैठे नेता, इठालायेंगे 
वो दिन दूर नहीं जब जनता गद्दी छीन 
स्वयं के, सामाजिक और नियम-कानून बनाएगी 
ऐसी रुत में, वो दिन दूर नहीं जब  ऐसी व्यवस्था चर्मराएगी 
कि कोई लाठी, कोई बन्दूक,कोई इमरजेंसी,  

उन्हें ना रोक पाएगी !!
इससे पहेले शासको जागो , समाज के ठेकेदारों जागो !!
अपनी यह निष्क्रियता त्यागो!!
लाओ मिलकर कानून ऐसा जिससे,
फिर कलंकित न हो भारत माँ का चेहरा !!
लाओ मिलकर ऐसी कानून व्यवस्था,
जिससे अपराधियों के मन में हो भय घनेरा !
और फिर सब मिलकर दोहराएंगे :-
भारत माँ के आँचल में सुरक्षित है हर नागरिक, हर अबला !!
हमारे सभ्य समाज में होगा नहीं, ऐसा अपराध फिर दोबारा !!
कहना नहीं पड़ेगा फिर यूँही, दिखावे के लिए 
"ऐसा अपराध ना हो दोबारा!!"

Sunday, 16 December 2012

"संतोष"


इंसान है आज बहका-बहका 
"संतोष-धन" है वो खो बैठा!!
विलास के साधनों से 
हैं आँखें, उसकी यूँ चुन्धियाई 
बिना सोचे ही, इस तृष्णा का 
बन गया है, वो अनुयायी !!
मद की मदहोशियों से 
वो यूँ आकर्षित हुआ 
की उसने, अपने चातुर्य
को भी है खो दिया !!
अभिमान का अँधेरा है 
उसपे ऐसा छाया 
कि स्वाभिमान की वाणी 
भी, वो सुन न पाया !!
कृत्रिमता के पटल ने है 
उसकी आँखों को यूँ छुपाया 
की सत्य- असत्य में 
वो भेद ना कर पाया !!
लोभ लालच ने इतना 
उसे है निर्मम बनाया 
कि औरों की  भावनाओ को 
वो समझ नहीं पाया !!
झूठ की धुंध ने 
है उसे चारों ओर से घेरा 
की दिखला न सका 
सत्य-पथ उसे कोई सवेरा !!
ईर्ष्या की रज में आता है 
नज़र वो सना हुआ 
आज प्रीत की धुन को भी 
है उसने भुला दिया !!
काश वो देख पाता 
आया है नज़र,उसे जो रेशम 
वो तो है,काल के मायाजाल  का रेशा !!
काश वो जान जाता   
जिन मानवीय-भावनाओ(सत्य,संतोष ,सय्यम) को,
समझने लगा है, वो अवरोधक 
वही हैं जीवन-सार, और यथार्थ 
वो ही है "पथ-प्रदर्शक" 
वो ही है-"लक्ष्य" मानवता का!!


Friday, 27 April 2012

" Eat food in Calm & cozy Atmosphere!!"- There is hidden logic behind this Adage..!!


“WE MUST EAT FOOD IN CALM & COZY ATMOSPHERE… AWAY FROM WORRIES & ANXIETY…Why??”
Before explaining the reason for the above Question.. Lets first have a look at the Digestive process taking place in our body. This will help in resolving the above query with Scientific reasoning & Logic.
The secretion of gastric juices plays a vital role during digestion.
Most mastication and little digestion of food in mouth, by the action of salivary amylase (a digestive enzyme present in saliva) the semi digested & semisolid food enters esophagus. Passing down the esophagus the food enters through the cardiac sphincter (a valve like opening present at the junction of esophagus & fundus of stomach) into the most dilatable portion of alimentary canal known as STOMACH
It is present in epigastric region partly on left of Hypochondriac & Umbical region 
Stomach is the organ present in abdominal cavity which acts as a churner and a temporary storage organ.
The inner lining of stomach is a mucous coat; which is soft and like corrugated folds. The corrugation disappears when stomach is distended with food.
The inner most coat of stomach has mucous membrane. This contains columnar cells that secrete mucous.
The surface of inner membrane is covered with tiny ducts from many gastric glands.
The gastric glands include-
  • Cardiac glands which lie near the cardiac sphincter. These secrete mucous.
  • Tubular glands /gland of fundus- these produce pepsin ( a proteolytic enzyme)
Functions of stomach
  • Stomach acts as temporary storage organ.
  • It contains 0.4% of HCl which acidifies food
  • Acidic atmosphere in stomach renders food safe, i.e. free of microbial infections.
  • Also acidic atmosphere is required for conversion of Pepsinogen(precursor of Pepsin-a proteolytic enzyme) to pepsin which acts on Proteins & breakdown them into peptones(more soluble form)
  • Food is churned by peristaltic waves & mixed with HCl & gastric juice and is prepared for intestinal digestion.
  • Rennin present in digestive juice of stomach curdles milk.
  • Fats are emulsified by  action of HCl.
  • An anti anemic factor is formed by ferment present in Gastric juice. This factor s necessary for absorption of Vit B-12(Cyanocobalmin) which is needed in Heam part of Hemoglobin. Absence of this factor can be responsible for occurrence of Pernicious Anemia.
  • Formation of Chyme takes place by the action Gastric secretions & HCl on partially digested food inside the stomach turning it into simpler components. Chyme is easily digested & absorbed in intestines. 
 Now, we come back to the main point of discussion:
WHY-WE MUST EAT FOOD IN CALM & COZY ATMOSPHERE… AWAY FROM
WORRIES & ANXIETY…??
“Bhojan aur bhajan Ekaant aur shantimay sthaan par karna chahiye..”
Secretion of gastric juice is quite important in DIGESTION PROCESS.
The process is both – nervous stimulated & a chemical process.
Mere sight or smell of well prepared food triggers the gastric secretion.
This period remains for about 20-30 minutes. At this time absorption of nutrients is at its peak. This is what can be known as period of craving for food.

Chemicals,too stimulate secretion.
Some chemicals present in food, interact with the walls of stomach and liberate an HORMONE called GASTRIN.
Gastrin is responsible for the
feedback mechanism of  
SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM(SNS) & CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS)
                             Gastrin plays a Vital role in feedback for release of more of Gastric juices into alimentary canal.
When emotions are at peak (especially anger, fear or distress) the Sympathetic nervous system is affected. Mainly secretion of Adrenalin is responsible for imbalance in feedback mechanism. Generally lowering of Gastrin secretion occurs.
This may result in-
  • Rejection of food by stomach.
  • Partial digestion & partial absorption of nutrients.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Feeling of butterflies in stomach due to contraction of stomach walls.
  • Unusual dilation of cardiac sphincter.. This can result in regurgitation of food & HEARTBURN.
  • An imbalance in release of gastric juice –Hypo-secretion can result in indigestion.
  • Hyper-secretion of Gastric juice may result in Gorging of food due to more feeling of hunger.
  • Hyper-secretion may also lead to acidity due to mental stress/ tension.
We can conclude, that the mood during Food intake is important factor to ensure proper digestion & absorption of Nutrients.
Even, the speed of eating food will affect the amount of Food intake. One can eat more food, if he eats quickly, during 20-30 minutes(ie. during-Period of craving for food) when the secretion of Gastrin & other Digestive juices is at the PEAK.
Finally, one more reason to say -"our preceding generations had a scientific outlook towards life!!"May be they never explained all the reasons. But they were aware of the facts & affects of Mood on food intake & absorption—
So, there is an era old adage  “Bhojan ekant mein, shant-mann se karna chahiye” 
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Related Facts:-

Our Digestive System
    Digestive System
Abdominal cavity
  • It’s the largest cavity.
  • Oval in shape.
  • Extends from diaphragm to pelvis.
  • AC is divided into 2 parts        
-Abdomen proper( upper larger cavity)
-  Pelvis( lower & smaller cavity)
Position
Abdominal cavity lie above the diaphragm.
Below the brim of pelvis
Front has abdominal muscles
Sides are covered by iliac bones & lower ribs
Backside has vertebral column & Quadratus-Lumborum muscles.
Abdomen has
  • Stomach
  • Small intestine (major part of alimentary canal)
  • Liver is present on right upper part below the diaphragm
  • Gallbladder lies below the liver
  • Pancreas is behind the stomach & spleen lie at tail of pancreas.
  • Kidney & adrenal glands are present on posterior abdominal wall.
  • Ureters pass through abdominal cavity starting from Kidneys.

    Abdominal cavity


    Monday, 23 April 2012

    Caste Exogamy ( Intercaste marriages) may be beneficial, Genetically !! Why not break-Caste barriers & have efficient offsprings??

    Every family member contributes to the Gene pool..
    Lets have a larger "gene pool" with variety of traits..
    Probability of finding good Personal traits in Progeny will be Higher!!


    Genetics explains that family lineage always contributes to one's personality. Everything is inherited by the progeny from previous generations through Genes. A wider & varied Gene pool will help in having Healthier Progeny..
    There is a myth that "pure blood" or we can say, children of people from same caste or genetically identical groups are better in terms of Health & intelligence.
    In societies, like the one, that is prevalent in our country. People follow caste system  and argue that Marriages done in the own closed group are beneficial for the preserverance or endurance of the Family Lineage or  VANSH..Children born to parents from so-called Superior caste/blood would be Superior in terms of Health & Intelligent..
    But scientific studies indicate all together different scenario.. 
    Nowadays, Racial mixing is the inevitable result of globalization.
    Scientists are fascinated by theories that say mixing of genes/blood leads to a genetic advantage!!

    Lets analyze- 
    When people from different human populations marry – does it really brings the benefits; by reducing the number of recessive gene-pairs ambiguities??.
    Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes containing about 30,000 genes. Only the sex chromosomes break the ‘pairs’ rule. An individual who has two identical copies of a gene is called a "Homozygote", while someone who has two copies that differ is called a "Heterozygote".
    When, different races or say people from different CASTE are responsible for procreation. Then obviously birth of HYBRID or a HETROZYGOTE offspring will take place. 
    A differing gene pair in heterozygote gives advantage n extra flexibility & adaptability to environmental circumstances. So, resultant off-springs will be genetically efficient & healthier.
    Its a well known & scientifically proven fact that HYBRIDS are better-genetically and Hetrozygote or the offsprings of people with different genes n traits are better in terms of :-
    • Survival & Life expectancy,
    • Adaptability to physical or Social environment,
    • Cognitive development ,
    • Motor development,
    • Intelligence & Intelligence Quotient(I.Q.)
    • Immunity(especially cell mediated immunity) etc.
    • Also, the recessive birth defects are less likely in people with different genes, ie. hetrozygotes.
    Sociological Approach:-
    Do we ever think why there were social norms related to "Gotra Exogamy"??
    Earlier, social structure wasn’t that broad. Endogamy(marrying in close relations) would have been an easier choice.
    But then too- HINDU marriage norms & our Shaastras insisted on Incest Taboo & Gotra-Exogamy .
    "Incest taboo" is norm that prohibits practices of sexual relations between relatives. Sometimes relations between clan-members are excluded, even when no traceable genealogical relations exist.
     Exogamy is the custom of marrying outside a specified group of people to which a person belongs. In addition to blood relatives, marriage to members of a clan,kin or specific group are forbidden.
    In Hindus Gotra exogamy is prevalent through out eras.
    Hinduism speaks of incest in abhorrent terms. Hindus are fearful of the bad effects of incest and thus practice strict rules. Marriages within the gotra ie. "Swagotra marriages" are banned under the rule of exogamy in the traditional matrimonial system. People within the gotra are regarded as kin. i.e. Marriage between two people whose parents are related paternally up to 7 generations was prohibited. 
    {Gotra is transferred down the male lineage while the Gotra of a female changes upon marriage. i.e upon marriage a woman belongs to her husband's Gotra and no longer belongs to her father's Gotra.
    In that case, if only single Gotra is considered. There may be marriage between maternal Cousins; which is incest.}
    Hence, atleast marriage with a person having same Gotra as of the original Gotras of all 4 grandparents is prohibited.
    Human societies insisted on exogamy (outbreeding) because procreating with individuals who are more closely related means progeny may be more likely to suffer from genetic defects caused by inbreeding.
    Inbreeding is the reproduction from the mating of two genetically related parents. It results in increased homozygosity, which can increase the chances of offspring being affected by recessive or deleterious traits. This generally leads to a decreased fitness of a population, which is called "Inbreeding depression"
    Inbreeding or endogamy may result in a far higher phenotypic expression of deleterious recessive genes within a population than would normally be expected. As result-generations are more likely to show physical and health defects, including:
    • Lowered intelligence & IQ
    • Increased genetic disorders
    • Fluctuating facial asymmetry
    • Lower birth rate
    • Higher infant mortality
    • Reduced fertility both in litter size and sperm viability
    • Slower growth rate
    • Slower cognitive development.
    • Less adaptability
    • Reduced immunity.
    • Lowered emotional development.
    The reduced genetic diversity that results from inbreeding means a species reduced environmental adaptability. A narrow range of certain immune systems genes in a population increases vulnerability to infectious diseases.Species may become Endangered.
    eg. Parsis in India have reduced in numbers; due to smaller initial population size & inbreeding in closely related people.
    Anthropological & Psychological approach :-  Stress on benefits of Exogamy...
    Levi-Strauss’s alliance theory-The hypothesis of a "marriage-alliance" points out towards the necessary interdependence of various families & lineages. 
    Weddings are seen as a form of communication.Alliance theory tries to understand the basic questions about inter-individual relations, or what constitutes society.
    Alliance theory is based on the incest taboo: according to it, only this universal prohibition of incest pushes human groups towards exogamy.
    Other anthropologists like Margaret Mead argue that nuclear family incest avoidance can be explained in terms of the ecological, demographic, and economic benefits of exogamy.
    Westermarck effect, or reverse sexual imprinting, is a hypothetical psychological effect through which people who live in close domestic proximity during the first few years of their lives become desensitized to later sexual attraction.
    Anthropologists insist that Incest taboo & Exogamy helps in mingling of cultures & acts as a unifying force amongst groups, castes or societies. Thus SOCIAL INTERACTION through marriage & progeny strengthens the SOCIAL BONDS.

    Genetical & pathological Approach:-

    Genetic disorders-Autosomal recessive disorders occur in individuals who have two copies of the gene for a particular recessive genetic mutation. Both parents will be carriers of the disease gene.As relatives share a higher proportion of their genes than do unrelated people, it is more likely that related parents will both be carriers of the same recessive gene, and therefore their children are at a higher risk of a genetic disorder.
    Some preliminary evidence support effects on many such disorders including:-Cardiovascular diseases and Cancers.
    Many previously not identified genetic disorders have first been recognized in highly endogamous communities and the mutation causing the disease may be unique to such communities.
    One of the most famous example of a genetic disorder aggravated by "Royal family intermarriage" was House of Habsburg,. Royal family intermarriages were often practiced to protect property, wealth and position. 
    The Family faced the aftermaths of Endogamy & of being Homozygotic.Famous in this case is the "Mandibular prognathism"or Habsburger (Unter) Lippe (Habsburg jaw/Habsburg lip/Austrian lip)-
    a typical disorder for many Habsburg relatives over a period of six centuries. 
    The condition progressed through the generations to the point that the last of the Spanish Habsburgs, Charles II of Spain, could not properly chew his food. Besides the jaw deformity, Charles II also had a huge number of other genetic physical, intellectual, sexual, and emotional problems.
    Two different genetic disorders: Combined pituitary hormone deficiency and Distal renal tubular acidosis can explain most of the complex clinical profile of this king, including his impotence/infertility which in the last instance led to the extinction of the dynasty.
    • Another famous genetic disease that circulated among European royalty(including Queen Victoria's Parents) was Hemophilia.
    Heterozygous advantage
    It describes the case in which the heterozygote genotype has a higher relative fitness than either the homozygote dominant or homozygote recessive genotype. The specific case of heterozygote advantage is due to a single locus known as overdominance.
    When two populations of any sexual organism are separated and kept isolated from each other, the frequencies of deleterious mutations in the two populations will differ over time, by genetic drift.
    It is highly unlikely, that the same deleterious mutations will be prevalent in both populations after a long period of separation. Since loss-of-function mutations tend to be recessive ; given that dominant mutations of this type generally prevent the organism from reproducing and thereby passing the gene on to the next generation.
    The result of any "CROSS" between the two populations will be fitter than the parent.
    Heterozygote advantage is a major underlying mechanism for heterosis, or "hybrid vigor", which is the improved or increased function of any biological quality in a hybrid offspring.
    Genetically transmitted disease which can be prevented by HETEROZYGOSITY
    1. Sickle-cell anemia-A genetic disorder that is caused by the presence of 2 incompletely recessive alleles. When sufferer's RBC’s are exposed to low-oxygen conditions, the cells lose their healthy round shape and become sickle-shaped. This deformation results in loss of capacity of RBC’s to carry Oxygen, depriving parts of body,of oxygen. When untreated, a person suffers from anemia or painful bouts, often causing damage to internal organs & strokes. The disease results in premature death.
    2. Cystic fibrosis- CF, is an autosomal recessive hereditary disease of the lungs, sweat glands and digestive system. The disorder is caused by the malfunction of the CFTR protein, which controls inter-membrane transport of chloride ions, which is vital to maintaining equilibrium of water in the body. The malfunctioning protein causes viscous mucus to form in the lungs and intestinal tract.Earlier,Child born with CF had a life expectancy of only a few years, but modern medicine has made it possible for these people to live into adulthood. However, even in these individuals- CF typically causes sterility. It is the most common genetic disease among people of Europeans.The presence of a single CF mutation may influence survivorship of people affected by diseases involving loss of body fluid, typically due to diarrhea. The most common of these maladies is cholera.
    3. Triosephosphate isomerase-TPI is a central enzyme of Glycolysis.In humans, certain mutations within this enzyme affect the dimerisation of this protein are causal for a rare disease, triosephosphate isomerase deficiency. A mutations, which inactivate the enzyme.Null alleles formed are lethal when inherited homozygously .
    4.  Resistance to hepatitis C virus infection-increased consanguinity in a population increases its susceptibility to infectious pathogens such as tuberculosis and hepatitis whereas Genetic heterozygosity in humans provides increased resistance to certain viral infections. 
    5. MHC(Major histocompatibility complex) heterozygosity -Heterozygosity at MHC loci results in more alleles to fight against a wider variety of diseases, possibly increasing survival rates against a wider range of infectious diseases. Thus results in High immunity.
    6. Even Diabetes, Night-blindness, some Cancers, Hemophilia, Lactose intolerance , Gluten allergy etc. are said to be genetically dependent diseases.

    We may conclude:-

    Hybrids are more efficient as they perpetuate two cultures & two genetically  different lineages.
    As, Marriage is socially accepted & sanctioned way of establishing a "Family of procreation"!!
    It's psyhcological desire of everyone,to have efficient progeny..All want a Healthy Vansh & vanshaz..
    Then ,

    Why don't we take a step forward-to have healthy Off-springs??
    Why don't we search, mates, across the closed group boundaries or the closed caste system??
    Why we have a taboo on intermixing of castes?? 
    Why don't we prefer INTERCASTE MARRIAGES??
    I guess, there shouldn’t be a fear of loosing cultural identity...
    As dominant genes never loose their identity by genetic drift.. Similarly Good cultural TRAITS will never disappear by social unification! 
    Days of Varna system are gone.. There is no need of that strict social stratification & division of Karmas..
    Accept EXOGAMY..!! 
    Not only Gotra exogamy but accept CASTE EXOGAMY (intercaste marriages)!!
    Racial mixing is going to be beneficial for upcoming generations!!
    Break the caste barriers!!
    Imagine a future Society with Progeny which will be -
    Healthier - SOCIALLY, PHYSICALLY & PSYCHOLOGICALLY!!